Trade and unions: Can exporters benefit from collective bargaining?
20 October 2014
Unions are often stigmatized as being a source of inefficiency due to higher collective bargaining outcomes. This is in stark contrast with the descriptive evidence presented in this paper. Larger firms choose to export and are also more likely to adopt collective bargaining. We rationalize those stylized facts using a partial equilibrium model that allows us to evaluate firms' value functions under individual or collective bargaining. Exporting further decreases average production costs for large firms in the collective bargaining regime, allowing them to benefit from additional external economies of scale due to lower bargaining costs. Our findings suggest that the positive correlation between export status and collective bargaining can be explained through size.
IAB-Discussion Paper 24/2014
The implementation of the German Classification of Occupations 2010 in the IAB Job Vacancy Survey
30 September 2014
The IAB-Job Vacancy Survey (IAB-JVS) is the only establishment survey in Germany which contains information about vacancies and new hires on an occupational level. When the new German Classification of Occupations 2010 was introduced, it became necessary to integrate it into the IAB-JVS. This report outlines the implementation of the new classification into the IAB-JVS questionnaire. It was conducted simultaneously with the renewal of the international classification, from ISCO-88 to ISCO-08.
Literature database of IAB
26 September 2014
The literature database of IAB is accessible free-of-charge via the professional social-science portal sowiport. It contains roughly 140,000 instances of labour market-relevant literature, frequently along with an abstract and a link to full text. Here it is not only a question of IAB publications but – since the founding of IAB (the Institute for Employment Research) – also of a general literature database which has been built up and continually updated.
Literature database of IAB
Employment and earnings effects of awarding training vouchers in Germany
17 September 2014
In 2003, Germany moved from a system in which participants in training programs for the unemployed are assigned by caseworkers to an allocation system using vouchers. Based on the rich administrative data for all vouchers and on actual program participation, we provide inverse probability weighting and ordinary least squares estimates of the employment and earnings effects of a voucher award.
IAB-Discussion Paper 23/2014
Determinants of labor shortage - with particular focus on the German environmental sector
29 August 2014
Despite the ongoing discussion on labor shortage in the German economy there is still a lack of empirical analyses of this problem based on adequate econometric methods. The paper explores the determinants of labor shortage in the environmental sector supplying products and services that help to reduce environmental impacts and energy use. Labor shortages occur when the price adjustment mechanism is too slow to balance labor demand and supply. The empirical analysis of labor shortage uses recent data of the establishment panel of the Institute for Employment Research in Nuremberg. A descriptive analysis shows that the environmental sector seems to be over-proportionally affected by labor shortage.
IAB-Discussion Paper 22/2014
On GDP-employment decoupling in Germany
29 August 2014
This paper investigates the time-varying relationship between German output and employment growth, in particular their decoupling in recent years. We estimate a correlated unobserved components model that allows for both persistent and cyclical time variation in the employment impact of GDP as well as an autonomous employment component capturing other factors than real output. As one result, we measure a permanent decline in Verdoorn's coefficient as well as pronounced effects of the autonomous employment component in the recent years. The development of the estimated impact parameters is shown to crucially depend on structural change, but also on labour availability and business expectations.
IAB-Discussion Paper 21/2014
Labour market effects of retraining for the unemployed
27 August 2014
We analyse the impact of retraining for the unemployed on future labour market success, and estimate effects separately for different target occupations. We use German registry data and apply statistical matching methods. The results show that on average, after a period with strong lock-in effects, retraining increases the employment probability of women by more than 20 percentage points. Effects for male participants are somewhat weaker. Although we find differences in the effectiveness of retraining by target occupations, these differences cannot completely explain the observed gender differences. Healthcare occupations, which are the most important target occupations especially of female participants, are among those with the strongest effects.
IAB-Discussion Paper 20/2014
Firm performance and trade with low-income countries
26 August 2014
Do firms in developing countries shift trade towards developed economies as a result of high economic growth? The matched customs-manufacturing firm data used in this study confront this hypothesized link with empirical evidence. Our analysis reveals a rising low-income country trade share around and after China's accession to the World Trade Organization. Based on this stylized fact, we analyze the link between firm characteristics and trade with low-income countries.
IAB-Discussion Paper 19/2014