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Inhaltsbereich: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung

 

    Essays on matching processes and effects of institutional changes on regional and occupational labour markets

    18 May 2016

    The functioning of the labour market and the impact of labour market policies are a long-standing issue in social and political debate. In this respect, labour market research acquires the necessary knowledge and often receives impulses from labour market policy. Conversely, progress in the development of research methods and data mining encourages labour market policymakers to ask new questions that have not been answered yet.

    Michael Stops picks up such developments and focusses on the following three issues:

    Occupational mobility and the job matching Efficiency; The development of job matching efficiency on partial occupational markets before, during and after the years of the German labour market reforms 2003–2005; The employment effect of the National Minimum Wage in the United Kingdom 1999–2012.

    IAB-Bibliothek 359


    Causes and consequences of the gender-specific migration from East to West Germany

    18 May 2016

    Although the German reunification took place 25 years ago, differences between East and West Germany are still present. Many people reacted to the differences in living standards and living chances between East and West Germany by migrating to the West. This book investigates not only the crucial individual and structural factors for the gender-specific migration of men and women, but also the consequences of the East–West migration in Germany. It is asked: How does migration influence individual incomes? Are East–West migrants happier? Those questions are answered with the focus on gender-specific differences in the migration behavior.

    IAB-Bibliothek 358


    Occupation coding during the interview

    18 May 2016

    Currently, most surveys ask for occupation with open-ended questions. The verbatim responses are coded afterwards, which is error-prone and expensive. The authors describe an alternative approach that allows occupation coding during the interview. The new technique utilizes a supervised learning algorithm to predict candidate job categories.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 17/2016


    Occupation-specific matching Efficiency

    13 May 2016

    Based on rich administrative data from Germany, we address the differences in occupation specific job-matching processes where an occupation consists of jobs that share extensive commonalities in their required skills and tasks. These differences can be explained by the degree of standardization (determined by the existence of certifications or legal regulations) in an occupation and the diversity of tasks in an occupation. We find that the matching efficiency improves with higher degrees of standardization and lower task diversity. We discuss the possible mechanisms of these empirical findings in a search theoretic model: as the standardization of an occupation increases or the diversity of tasks decreases, search costs decrease and the optimal search intensity increases. However, the model reveals that higher search intensities can have positive or negative effects on the matching efficiency. We discuss the conditions under which the empirical results can be predicted.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 16/2016


    Do minimum wages increase job satisfaction?

    10 May 2016

    On 1 January 2015 a new statutory minimum wage of EURO 8.50 per hour of work was introduced in Germany. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimate effects on worker-level outcomes of continuing employees. The results reveal a meaningful absolute increase in the affected workers' pay satisfaction. The increase in job satisfaction is modest and predominantly driven by changes in pay satisfaction implying only a small effect on all other dimensions of job satisfaction. Moreover, effects from the minimum wage on work engagement and turnover intention are virtually zero.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 15/2016 


    Management practices, workforce selection, and productivity

    03 May 2016

    Recent research suggests that much of the cross-firm variation in measured productivity is due to differences in use of advanced management practices. Many of these practices – including monitoring, goal setting, and the use of incentives – are mediated through employee decision-making and effort. To the extent that these practices are complementary with workers’ skills, better-managed firms will tend to recruit higher-ability workers and adopt pay practices to retain these employees.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 14/2016


    Benefits of dense labour markets

    29 April 2016

    We analyse whether the size of the local labour market allows for better matching between job seekers and vacancies, which is thought to enhance productivity. This analysis is based on a large data set providing detailed micro-level information on new employment relationships in Germany. Our results suggest rather small matching benefits. Doubling employment density increases the productivity of new employment relationships by 1.1% to 1.2%. Moreover, the findings indicate that the benefits accrue only to persons experiencing job-to-job transitions and short-term unemployed. We detect no important impact of agglomeration on transitions from long-term non-employed.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 13/2016


    A re-examination of constrained Pareto inefficiency in economies with incomplete markets

    20 April 2016

    The authors establish that, when the number of agents is sufficiently large, but finite, there are open sets of economies with constrained Pareto inefficient equilibria, and provide a simple sufficient condition for CP inefficiency. They also show that there are open sets of economies with CPO equilibria.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 12/2016


    Asymmetric information in external versus internal promotions

    06 April 2016

    Individuals have two possible channels through which to obtain a managerial position: external and internal promotions. Employing the revised German Employment Register, we compare external and internal promotions by using multinomial logit regressions while accounting for workplace heterogeneity. Individual characteristics are hypothesized to exert differential effects because of their observability within and across workplaces. We find that actual working hours are a more important source of information for internal versus external promotions.

    IAB-Discussion Paper 11/2016



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